1. The Mongol way of life was a. hunting and gathering. b. agricultural. c. based on procurement. d. pastoral. e. urbanized.
2. Menial work in Mongol camps was done by a. women b. gendered division of labor c. slaves d. children. e. all of these.
3. The Mongol leader, the khan, a. had absolute power in decision making. b. had his decisions ratified by a council. c. was a figurehead only. d. had no power to make decisions but retained a veto. e. deferred to the Mongol Parliament.
4. One religion among the several or many that virtually all Mongols observed was: a. Islam b. shamanism. c. Orthodox Christianity\ d. atheistic. e. Buddhist
5. As a means of continuing to spread the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan used all except which of the following means to expand and control his territories? a. Incorporation of non-Mongol armies b. Use of subordinate generals c. Horses and iron weaponry d. Collection of tribute e. Diplomatic negotiation
6. The first Mongol conquests under Genghis Khan were in a. Central Asia, the Middle East, and Russia. b. Japan and Korea. c. China. d. Egypt. e. Annam.
7. Which of the Mongol Khans attacked Russia in 1236? a. Genghis b. Ögödei c. Khubilai d. Batu e. Güyük
8. To maintain control of vast areas, the Mongols formed different khanates. The Golden Horde ruled over a. Russia. b. Japan. c. China. d. India. e. Korea.
9. In 1265, major divisions emerged between the Mongol khans because a. many branches refused to accept Khubilai as Great Khan. b. Jagadai did not accept Shamanism. c. Batu and Khubilai teamed up against Jagadai. d. some refused to accept an alliance with the Mamluks. e. Yuan defied tribunal consensus to attack central Europe.
10. After rejection by his family for the title of Great Khan, Khubilai formed a. the Golden Horde b. the Central Asian Khanate c. Il-Khan Empire of Iran d. the Yuan Empire e. he was assassinated by political rivals.
11 Which of the following was NOT a contributing factor to Mongol military supremacy? a. enormous conscripted armies to outnumber their enemies b. superior riding skills. c. more technically proficient bows. d. flaming arrows e. catapults to hurl sometimes-flaming projectiles.
12 Narratives such as Marco Polo's created a European a. isolationist mentality. b. image of Mongol poverty. c. ambition to find easier routes to Asia. d. fear of Mongol contact. e. aversion to all things from Asia.
13 One of the most significant effects of Mongol trade routes was a. the spread to western Europe of new luxury goods like silk. b. importing of spices from western Europe. c. the opening of conversion missions from western European Christians. d. the spread of diseases including the plague e. the development of a universal system of coinage.
14. The conflict between the Il-khans and the Golden Horde originated in a. economic differences. b. religious differences. c. cultural differences. d. philosophical differences. e. political differences.
15. In 1295, the Il-khan ruler Ghazan converted to which religion? a. Islam b. Judaism c. Christianity d. Buddhism e. Shinto
16. In an attempt to repel non-Muslims in the Il-Khan and Crimean/Caucauses areas, the Golden Horde formed an alliance with: a. Persian Muslims b. Egyptian Mamluks c. Seljuk Turks d. Byzantine (Ottoman) Janissary forces e. Buddhists in India
17. Tax farming is a. the payment of taxes solely by farmers. b. the sale of tax-collecting contracts to small corporations. c. the exemption granted to farmers from taxation. d. the growth of a new cash crop. e. the raising of crops on government land to pay for government expenses.
18. Apparently envisioning himself as a new Genghis Khan, this ruler attacked the Muslim sultanate of Delhi in 1398: a. Jagadai b. Ghazan c. Timur d. Juvaini e. Hülegü
19. Why was there a cultural flowering in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia under the Timurids? a. The European style of the Renaissance reached Central Asia. b. The Dutch tulip was a cultural catalyst between the two societies. c. The Timurids were schooled in art in Italy. d. Egyptian artisans migrated throughout Central Asia and the Middle East. e. Iran and China shared artistic trends and political ideas.
20 Who attempted to write the first world history? a. The Abbasid caliph b. Marco Polo c. Ibn Battuta d. Ivan III e. Rashid al-Din
21 The scholar Nasir al-Din Tusi was most notable for his contributions in a. poetry written in Persian b. an encompassing world history c. translation of philosophy d. mathematical developments in algebra and trigonometry e. cartography
22 A significant transmission and sharing of scientific knowledge was found in the form of a. formulas for alchemical processes b. Uigher calendar calculations c. eclipse predictions and tables d. networked astronomical observatories e. a centralized library of shared knowledge at Tabriz
23 The significant scientific discoveries of Islamic scholars were translated by a. Arabic scholars. b. Byzantine monks into Greek. c. Christian scholars in Spain. d. Indian scholars in Delhi. e. all of these.
24 What economic problems did Russia see during the time of Mo Mongol domination? a. overzealous tax collection by Russian princes b. the burden of taxation carried by the peasantry. c. the attempt to introduce paper money by the Mongols. d. direct exchange of goods rather than purchases in currency. e. all of these.
25 The Russian prince who advocated cooperation with the Mongols to avoid destructive assimilation was a. Alexander Nevskii. b. Dmitri Donskoi. c. Ivan III. d. Vladimir the Viking. e. Grigorii Preobrazhenskii.
26 Which Russian ruler was the first to use the term "tsar"? a. Alexander Nevskii. b. Peter the Great. c. Ivan III. d. Ivan IV. e. Catherine the Great.
27. Stephen Dushan took advantage of weakening Byzantine influence and proclaimed himself tsar of a. the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Slavs. b. the Greeks, Byzantines, Bulgarians, and Sicilians. c. the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Macedonians. d. the Macedonians, Albanians, Slavs, and Serbs. e. the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Albanians.
28. Mongol armies often consisted of a. a multinational force with Mongol leaders. b. ethnic Mongols only.\ c. both male and female soldiers. d. Chinese mercenaries. e. Uighurs only.
29. Which of the following did the Europeans not learn about from the Mongols? a. Porcelain b. Movable type and bronze cannon c. Gunpowder and high-temperature metallurgy d. Coal mining and higher mathematics e. Diplomatic passports
30. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered which important Christian city? a. Kiev b. Vienna c. Paris d. Budapest e. Constantinople
31. Benefits of Mongol rule in the Yuan Empire included all of the following EXCEPT a. secure trade routes b. transition to tax farming instead of fixed rate method c. exchange of technical expertise between the East and West d. transmission of knowledge and skills e. all of these
32. Mongol rulers in China were increasingly influenced by the idea of a universal rulership model by religious leaders from a. Tibet. b. Korea. c. Vietnam. d. India. e. Japan.
33. What was the most lasting impact of the Mongols on China? a. The Mongols introduced Buddhism to China. b. The Mongols permanently reunited China after a prolonged period of political fragmentation. c. The Chinese government system was invented by the Mongols. d. The Mongols brought silk and porcelain production to China. e. The Mongols built the Great Wall.
34 The Yuan tax administration relied on a. Persian, Arab, and Uighur administrators. b. Mongol administrators. c. Chinese administrators. d. Korean administrators. e. Muslim administrators.
35 Which group held the lowest social rank in Yuan China? a. Southern Chinese b. Northern Chinese c. Middle Easterners d. Central Asians e. Mongols
36 After the introduction of paper money in China caused economic instability, the Mongols restored a degree of economic stability by: a. decreasing tax collection temporarily b. shifting the emphasis of coinage to silver instead of other metals. c. cutting off trade with Japan to stem the flow of copper exports d. diversifying trade agreements with western Europe. e. creating a favored nation trade status with whichever nation would agree to reduced tariffs.
37 One effect of the rise of cities in Yuan China was a. the increasing influence of Mandarin. b. the rise of a class of educated holy men. c. the decline of the prestige of the warrior class. d. improved nutrition of the urban population. e. an interest in trade for the first time in China.
38 Reliance on provincial production of goods instead of urban centralization of production was termed: a. gendered division of labor b. the factory system c. feudalism d. cottage industry e. pastoralist economic modeling
39 Which of the following is not one of the aspects of Mongol rule that created hardship and a sharp population decrease in China? a. Migration and flooding of the Yellow River b. warfare c. Bubonic plague d. Their insistence that the Chinese practice agriculture rather than trade e. Female infanticide
40. In 1368, the Yuan Empire was overthrown and replaced by the a. Manchu Empire. b. Yi Kingdom. c. Ming Empire. d. Song Empire. e. Tang Empire.
41. To demonstrate their rejection of the Mongols, the Ming emperors a. severed relations with the Middle East and Central Asia and closed the borders to foreigners. b. built the Great Wall of China and deported all Mongols. c. changed the official language from Mongolian to Chinese. d. marched all the Mongols to the Korean border. e. formed close ties with the Manchu instead.
42. The emperor Yongle improved the imperial complex built by the Mongols called the a. Imperial House. b. Forbidden City. c. Heavenly Gates. d. Dragon's Court. e. Red Square.
43. Because Mongols controlled access to the Silk Road after the overthrow of the Yuan, the emperor Yongle put an emphasis on a. trade by ships. b. overland trade through India and Arabia. c. trade through Buddhist monasteries. d. trans-Pacific exploration. e. none of these; trade decreased because people could not afford to travel by Silk Road and pay Mongol tariffs.
44. Zheng He's primary accomplishment was a. converting barbarians to Islam. b. discovering new lands in the East. c. bringing wealth to China. d. acquiring Ming tributary states. e. discovering the Philippines.
45. Why didn't Ming China develop seafaring for commercial and military gain? a. The emperor feared outside contacts and influence. b. The peasantry were a strong voting lobby and refused to support it. c. The merchants were opposed to losing their domestic markets. d. The Mongol threat from the north took priority over seafaring. e. The Japanese merchants undercut the market and stole China's trading partners.
46 What was the primary reason for the slowdown of technology after Yongle's death? a. limitation of the mining industry by the Ming empire. b. Japanese coastal piracy prevented transmission of new ideas and techniques. c. a religious edict by the conservative traditional elements d. collapse of the economy with the flood of silver from Spanish and Portuguese explorers. e. none of these
47 Which of the following was not a reason for economic decline in China after the death of Yongle? a. Decreased production of metal b. Lack of commercial development c. Reemphasis of the classic examination system, rather than commercialism d. A switch to growing staple crops instead of commercial crops e. Resurgence of the bubonic plague
48 Water Margin and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms are examples of a. Ming literature. b. Ming racehorses. c. Ming silk tapestry designs. d. Ming wallpaper. e. famous Ming sailing vessels.
49 The Ming produced one of the most prized commercial products of Eurasia: a. green or ginseng ink. b. teakwood clocks. c. porcelain. d. lightweight cannon. e. wool.
50 Which of the following areas were not under Mongol domination? a. Japan b. Korea c. China d. Vietnam e. Russia
51. The tropics are warm all year round. The center of the tropical zone is marked by the a. polar caps. b. Gulf Stream. c. equator. d. Sahara Desert. e. none of these.
52. The rainy and dry seasons in the Indian Ocean reflect the influence of a. the monsoons. b. the jet stream. c. the Gulf Stream. d. "El Niño". e. the Himalayas.
53. By 1200 human migrations had spread many useful plants and animals around the tropics, including a. bananas, yams, and cocoyams b. corn, beans, and squash. c. wheat, millet, and barley. d. rice, kiwi, and manioc. e. tea, spelt, and barley.
54. The form of extensive agriculture that was used in sub-Saharan Africa is called a. hunting and gathering. b. marginal cultivation. c. intensive cultivation. d. shifting cultivation. e. selective cultivation.
55. The greatest network of irrigation canals between the 14-19th century was found in: a. Sinhalese Kingdom of Ceylon b. Great Zimbabwe c. The Mali Empire d. The Han Empire e. The Delhi Sultanate
56. The Tuareg were a. Islamic missionaries who reached the sub-Saharan region. b. traders from the caravans between Arabia and Libya. c. western Saharan pastoralists and caravan guides. d. herders of camels and llamas in the Gold Coast region. e. descendants of the Dutch in South Africa.
57. The most abundant metal worked in the tropics was a. bronze. b. titanium. c. iron. d. silver. e. platinum.
58 The largest concentration of pastoralists in the world was in a. Madagascar. b. Tanzania. c. the Swahili Coast. d. Mali. e. northeastern Africa and Arabia.
59 The empires of Mali in West Africa and of Delhi in South Asia both utilized a. Islamic administration. b. papal administration. c. Orthodox Buddhist administration. d. a scholar bureaucracy. e. the electoral system.
60 The spread of Islam to lands south of the Sahara came about through a. war. b. forced conversion. c. a gradual and peaceful process of conversion. d. the missionary efforts of the Arabs during the Umayyad Caliphate. e. the travels of Ibn Battuta.
61 According to Malinke legends, the founder of Mali was a. a Shi'ite imam. b. Marco Polo. c. Sundiata. d. Sumanguru. e. Agamemnon.
62. Mali derived significant income from a. shifting agriculture trade with Yoruba b. the slave trade with Portugal. c. gold and copper trade with North African Muslim traders. d. coffee trade with Ethopia. e. glass trade with Benin.
63 Mansa Kankan Musa made a famous pilgrimage that a. spread Christianity to West Africa. b. demonstrated the enormous wealth of his country. c. led to the Christian Crusades. d. was inspired by the death of Muhammad. e. brought about his untimely death.
64. In addition to fulfilling his personal religious obligations, Mansa Kankan Musa's pilgrimage resulted in the a. disappearance of Buddhist practice in Mali. b. decrease in Malian taxes. c. contraction of the Malian economy. d. construction of new mosques and Quranic schools in Mali. e. conversion of all Malians to Islam.
65. Turkish invaders were able to successfully invade India because of a. the threats of Mongol Il-khans. b. a desire to spread the Islamic faith and to acquire plunder. c. the prospect of learning Indian technology and mathematics. d. the division of India into small states. e. all of these.
66. The Turkish conquest of northern India was aided by a. bronze cannon. b. muskets. c. crossbows. d. epidemic disease. e. Indian rebellions.
67. Sultan Iltutmish passed his empire to Raziya, his a. daughter. b. eldest son. c. youngest son. d. adviser. e. regent.
68. The most significant factor contributing to agriculture in the Delhi Sultanate was a. slave labor on sugar plantations. b. a switch to the three-field crop rotation system. c. the use of swidden agricultural practices. d. extensive irrigation canals. e. staple crops, including cucumbers and melons.
69. When the Delhi Sultanate began to lose control of its realm, new kingdoms emerged in India called a. Siam and Uighur. b. Hittite and Sind. c. Bahmani and Vijayanagar. d. Gujarat and Kilwa. e. Timur and Assam.
70. Sultan Muhammed ibn Tughluq was noted by Chronicler Ibn Battuta as being remarkable for his a. extravagance b. religious toleration c. passion for justice through Shar'ia d. alienation of the Brahmins e. establishment of a Quranic school at his Hall of a Thousand Pillars
71. Although the Delhi Sultanate had its problems, it did provide a a. reliable and safe water supply to the region. b. new irrigation system of qanats to the region. c. safe haven for religious exiles. d. centralized political authority to India. e. new unifying religion in the form of Islam.
72 Which of the following did not help to increase Indian Ocean trade between 1200 and 1500? a. The collapse of the Mongol Empire, which disrupted the overland trade routes b. Increased demand for luxury goods such as jewels, fine textiles, and precious metals c. The invention of the astrolabe d. The construction of larger ships, making shipping cargo more profitable e. The rising prosperity of Asian, European, and African states, which stimulated expansion
73 The characteristic ship of the Arabian Sea was the a. galley. b. junk. c. skow. d. caravel. e. dhow.
74 The largest, most technologically advanced ship in the Indian Ocean was the Chinese a. galley. b. junk. c. skow. d. dhow. e. caravel.
75 The different regional networks of the Indian Ocean trade were tied together by a. commercial interests. b. political authority. c. religious authority. d. a common language. e. the threat of Chinese intrusion.
76 By 1250 the most important trading city of the Swahili Coast was a. Cairo. b. Kilwa. c. Timbuktu. d. Casablanca. e. Johannesburg.
77 The economic and political power of Great Zimbabwe was based on long-distance trade in a. gold, copper, and salt. b. silk, porcelain, and iron. c. olives, wheat, and pepper. d. books, wool, and wine. e. qurans, ink, and wheat.
78 What caused the collapse of the empire of Great Zimbabwe? a. monsoon flooding b. conquest by Christian Ethiopians c. deforestation and cattle overgrazing d. prolonged drought that killed agriculture e. The order of Sultan Muhammed ibn Tughluq that the city be abandoned
79. What significant cultural feature allowed the regions of Aden and Ethiopia to thrive commercially? a. common monetary units b. mutual tolerance of diverse religions c. polyglots were common d. mutual abolition of slave trade e. none of these
80. What was unique about Gujarat trade compared to African and Arabic? a. Gujarat manufactured goods for trade b. Gujarat required non-Hindu traders to pay a special tariff c. Gujarat was significantly inland d. Gujarat had artisanal guilds that dictated trade standards e. Gujarat refused trade with the European states
81. As trade increased in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Strait of Malacca became the center of a political rivalry between a. Java and Ceylon. b. Siam and Tibet. c. India and Gujarat. d. Majapahit and Chinese pirates. e. Calcutta and Bombay.
82. Because of the trade through the Strait of Malacca, Malacca became an important port and a. the focus of the annual Buddhist pilgrimage. b. a meeting place for traders from around the Eurasian world. c. replaced Madagascar as the most important slave-trading port. d. became one of the most homogeneous cities in Southeast Asia. e. became known as the "Asian Tiger."
83. The cultural blending associated with the expansion and spread of Islam from 1200 to 1500 can be seen by examining a. the design of mosques that combine older traditions and new influences. b. the changes in the Quran that blend older traditions and new influences. c. the development of double-entry bookkeeping and banking. d. the blending of biblical and Quranic writings. e. the development of banking.
84. In Islamic society, mosques a. were used solely for religious worship. b. were off-limits to Africans. c. were used only to educate boys. d. were centers of learning and promoted literacy. e. went in and out of fashion.
85 Prior to the spread of literacy with the extension of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa, the only previously literate society was found in: a. Mali b. Egypt c. Morocco d. Ethiopia e. Tripoli
86 The spread of Islam to India promoted a new language that combined Persian and Hindi influence called a. Arabic. b. Urdu. c. Tamil. d. Bengali. e. Sanskrit.
87 The most profitable item traded from North Africa to Timbuktu, a center for learning, was a. gold. b. books. c. ink. d. slaves. e. oil.
88 The spread of Islam into India was different from that in Africa because a. it allowed coexistence of indigenous religions and temples. b. it was done largely by force and removed many Hindu and Buddhist temples. c. Islam never really took off in India. d. African regions converted for the sole reason of trade. e. it was easier because there were no tribes and everyone spoke the same language.
89 The prosperity of the Asian and African kingdoms from 1200 to 1500 was accompanied by the a. rise of science in Asia. b. need for better transportation in Africa. c. growth of slavery. d. need for a bigger navy and merchant marine. e. growth of Christianity.
90 The status of women in tropical India may have improved, based on reports that a. sati, or widow burning, became optional. b. the number of years of education increased. c. women wore more gold jewelry. d. women were able to achieve spiritual enlightenment. e. footbinding was on the decline